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VUCA is an acronym to describe or to reflect on the volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity of general conditions and situations. The U.S. Army War College introduced the concept of VUCA to describe the more volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous multilateral world perceived as resulting from the end of the Cold War. It has subsequently taken root in emerging ideas in strategic leadership.

The deeper meaning of each element of VUCA serves to enhance the strategic significance of VUCA foresight and insight, as well as the behaviour of groups and individuals in organisations. V = Volatility: the nature and dynamics of change, and the nature and speed of change forces and change catalysts. U = Uncertainty: the lack of predictability, the prospects for surprise, and the sense of awareness and understanding of issues and events. C = Complexity: the multiplex of forces, the confounding of issues, no cause-and-effect chain and confusion that surrounds organisation. A = Ambiguity: the haziness of reality, the potential for misreads, and the mixed meanings of conditions; cause-and-effect confusion.

These elements present the context in which organisations view their current and future state. They present boundaries for planning and policy management. They come together in ways that either confound decisions or sharpen the capacity to look ahead, plan ahead and move ahead.

From the perspective of organisational transformation, leaders must prepare strategies to lead their organisation through VUCA situations. They must learn to navigate themselves and others, to create an environment of agility, adaptability and development to withstand the pressure of constant change.


  • Leaders who are proactive in strategic planning can enable their organisations to pre-empt VUCA situations.
  • Leaders who encourage their organisation to learn from mistakes create the conditions for their people to recover from setbacks and look for ways forward.


  • Organisations must make significant investments in technology to aid collaboration and enable their people in the stormy VUCA environment.

Recommended resources:

VUCA Tools for a VUCA World: Developing Leaders and Teams for Sustainable Results, Deaton Ann V., 2018, ISBN 978-0692074947